Learn Everything About Fleas

Learn everything about fleas below!

Banish Fleas for Good with Our 3,000 Volt Bug Zapper: Your Key to a Bite-Free Environment!

Eradicating fleas and achieving a bite-free environment is now within reach with our revolutionary 3,000 volt bug zapper. Fleas, those pesky critters known for their irritating bites, can be a thing of the past. Our bug zapper is the ultimate flea killer, providing effective flea prevention while ensuring a comfortable, itch-free space for you and your loved ones. Say goodbye to flea bites and hello to a flea-free environment with our innovative solution.

Unraveling the Flea Problem

Understanding Fleas: An Invisible Threat

Fleas are small, agile insects that live by consuming the blood of their hosts. These tiny pests, often less than an eighth of an inch long, can leap distances over a hundred times their body length, making it easy for them to transfer onto pets and humans. Notoriously hard to detect, fleas can hide in the fur of your pets or in the fibers of your carpets and furniture. A single female flea can produce up to 50 eggs a day, which means an infestation can quickly spiral out of control. These insects thrive in warm, humid environments and can spread diseases, making flea prevention imperative. Understanding the threat fleas pose is the first step in addressing the issue. Our 3,000 volt bug zapper delivers a solution that targets these elusive pests, ensuring your environment remains flea-free.

The Impact of a Single Flea Bite

A flea bite is more than just a minor annoyance; it can have serious consequences, especially for those with allergies. When a flea bites, it injects saliva into the skin to prevent blood clotting, which can lead to itching, redness, and swelling. For some people, this triggers an allergic reaction known as flea allergy dermatitis, causing intense itching and discomfort. Moreover, flea bites are not just a human concern; they can cause similar distress to pets. Besides the discomfort, fleas can transmit diseases like typhus and tapeworms. In pets, a severe flea infestation can even lead to anemia due to blood loss. This highlights the importance of effective flea prevention and control. Our 3,000 volt bug zapper acts as a powerful flea killer, offering relief and protection by eliminating these pests from your environment.

Introducing the 3,000 Volt Bug Zapper

Your Key to a Bite-Free Environment

Achieving a flea-free environment is essential for your comfort and health, and our 3,000 volt bug zapper is your answer. This potent device is designed to attract and kill fleas with its high voltage electric grid, providing an efficient and chemical-free method of flea prevention. Unlike sprays and lotions that can contain harmful toxins, our bug zapper offers a safe alternative that is both pet-friendly and eco-conscious. Easy to use, simply plug in the device and let it work its magic, creating a protective barrier against these biting insects. With its robust construction and high-powered electric grid, you can trust the zapper to handle your flea problem, large or small. Invest in a bite-free environment; choose our flea killer to safeguard your space from the discomfort and health risks associated with fleas.

How the Flea Killer Works

Our 3,000 volt bug zapper is engineered to attract and dispatch fleas quickly and efficiently. It utilizes a high-intensity ultraviolet light to lure fleas and other insects. Once the pests are drawn in, they encounter the electrified grid, where a swift, 3,000-volt shock eliminates them instantly. What makes our flea killer stand out is its ability to cover a large area, ensuring comprehensive flea prevention throughout your home or office. The zapper operates continuously, offering round-the-clock protection against fleas. Its durable design ensures longevity, meaning you can rely on it for ongoing flea control. Additionally, the dead insects are collected in a tray for easy disposal, maintaining a clean and hygienic environment. With no chemicals or sprays involved, our bug zapper is a safe, effective, and environmentally friendly solution to your flea problems.

The Ultimate Flea Prevention

Why Choose Our Bug Zapper?

Choosing our 3,000 volt bug zapper means selecting a formidable flea prevention tool that offers multiple advantages. First, it’s incredibly effective; the high voltage ensures that fleas are killed on contact, drastically reducing their population in your environment. Second, it’s user-friendly. Simply plug in the device and it starts working immediately, with minimal maintenance required. Additionally, the zapper is designed for safety; the outer casing protects children and pets from the electrical grid inside. It’s also an eco-friendly option, as it doesn’t involve spraying harmful chemicals into the air. Furthermore, the bug zapper is cost-effective over time, eliminating the need for ongoing purchases of flea control products. Lastly, it’s versatile enough to be used both indoors and outdoors, providing comprehensive coverage. Our bug zapper stands as a smart investment for anyone looking to maintain a comfortable and flea-free environment.

Making Your Home a Flea-Free Zone

Creating a flea-free zone in your home starts with proactive measures, and our bug zapper is a crucial part of that strategy. To maximize its effectiveness, place the zapper in areas where fleas are most likely to be found, such as near pet bedding, carpets, or entryways. Regular vacuuming can help remove any flea eggs or larvae from the floor, while washing pet bedding and your own bedding in hot water can kill any hidden fleas. It’s also wise to keep your pets on a regular flea prevention regimen as an added layer of defense. By integrating the bug zapper with these simple steps, you can create an unwelcoming environment for fleas, significantly reducing the likelihood of infestation. A consistent approach to flea control will ensure that your home remains a sanctuary, free of the nuisance and health hazards posed by these pests.

Flea, the common name for the order Siphonaptera, includes 2,500 species of small flightless insects that survive as external parasites of mammals and birds. Fleas live by consuming blood, or hematophagy, from their hosts. Adult fleas grow to about 3 millimetres (1⁄8 inch) long, are usually brown, and have bodies that are “flattened” sideways or narrow, enabling them to move through their host’s fur or feathers. They lack wings, but have strong claws preventing them from being dislodged, mouthparts adapted for piercing skin and sucking blood, and hind legs extremely well adapted for jumping. They are able to leap a distance of some 50 times their body length, a feat second only to jumps made by another group of insects, the superfamily of froghoppers. Flea larvae are worm-like with no limbs; they have chewing mouthparts and feed on organic debris left on their host’s skin.

The Siphonaptera are most closely related to the snow scorpionflies (known as snow fleas in the UK) in the family Boreidae, placing them within the Endopterygote insect order Mecoptera. Fleas arose in the early Cretaceous, most likely as ectoparasites of mammals, before moving on to other groups, including birds. Each species of flea is more or less a specialist with respect to its host animal species: many species never breed on any other host, though some are less selective. Some families of fleas are exclusive to a single host group; for example, the Malacopsyllidae are found only on armadillos, the Ischnopsyllidae only on bats, and the Chimaeropsyllidae only on elephant shrews.

The oriental rat flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, is a vector of Yersinia pestis, the bacterium which causes bubonic plague. The disease was spread to humans by rodents such as the black rat, which were bitten by infected fleas. Major outbreaks included the Plague of Justinian, c. 540 and the Black Death, c. 1350, both of which killed a sizeable fraction of the world’s population.

Fleas appear in human culture in such diverse forms as flea circuses, poems like John Donne’s erotic The Flea, works of music such as by Modest Mussorgsky, and a film by Charlie Chaplin.

Morphology and behavior

Fleas are wingless insects, 1.5 to 3.3 millimetres (1⁄16 to 1⁄8 inch) long, that are agile, usually dark colored (for example, the reddish-brown of the cat flea), with a proboscis, or stylet, adapted to feeding by piercing the skin and sucking their host’s blood through their epipharynx. Flea legs end in strong claws that are adapted to grasp a host.

Unlike other insects, fleas do not possess compound eyes but instead only have simple eyespots with a single biconvex lens; some species lack eyes altogether. Their bodies are laterally compressed, permitting easy movement through the hairs or feathers on the host’s body. The flea body is covered with hard plates called sclerites. These sclerites are covered with many hairs and short spines directed backward, which also assist its movements on the host. The tough body is able to withstand great pressure, likely an adaptation to survive attempts to eliminate them by scratching.

Fleas lay tiny, white, oval eggs. The larvae are small and pale, have bristles covering their worm-like bodies, lack eyes, and have mouth parts adapted to chewing. The larvae feed on organic matter, especially the feces of mature fleas, which contain dried blood. Adults feed only on fresh blood


Their legs are long, the hind pair well adapted for jumping; a flea can jump vertically up to 18 cm (7 in) and horizontally up to 33 cm (13 in), making the flea one of the best jumpers of all known animals (relative to body size), second only to the froghopper. The flea jump is so rapid and forceful that it exceeds the capabilities of muscle, and instead of relying on direct muscle power, fleas store muscle energy in a pad of the elastic protein named resilin before releasing it rapidly (like a human using a bow and arrow). Immediately before the jump, muscles contract and deform the resilin pad, slowly storing energy which can then be released extremely rapidly to power leg extension for propulsion. To prevent premature release of energy or motions of the leg, the flea employs a “catch mechanism”. Early in the jump, the tendon of the primary jumping muscle passes slightly behind the coxa-trochanter joint, generating a torque which holds the joint closed with the leg close to the body. To trigger jumping, another muscle pulls the tendon forward until it passes the joint axis, generating the opposite torque to extend the leg and power the jump by release of stored energy. The actual take off has been shown by high-speed video to be from the tibiae and tarsi rather than from the trochantera (knees)

Life cycle and development

Fleas are holometabolous insects, going through the four lifecycle stages of egg, larva, pupa, and imago (adult). In most species, neither female nor male fleas are fully mature when they first emerge but must feed on blood before they become capable of reproduction. The first blood meal triggers the maturation of the ovaries in females and the dissolution of the testicular plug in males, and copulation soon follows. Some species breed all year round while others synchronise their activities with their hosts’ life cycles or with local environmental factors and climatic conditions. Flea populations consist of roughly 50% eggs, 35% larvae, 10% pupae, and 5% adults


The number of eggs laid depends on species, with batch sizes ranging from two to several dozen. The total number of eggs produced in a female’s lifetime (fecundity) varies from around one hundred to several thousand. In some species, the flea lives in the host’s nest or burrow and the eggs are deposited on the substrate, but in others, the eggs are laid on the host itself and can easily fall off onto the ground. Because of this, areas where the host rests and sleeps become one of the primary habitats of eggs and developing larvae. The eggs take around two days to two weeks to hatch. Experiments have shown that fleas lay more eggs on hosts which have limited food intakes, and that eggs and larvae survive better under these conditions, perhaps because the host’s immune system is compromised


Flea larvae emerge from the eggs to feed on any available organic material such as dead insects, faeces, conspecific eggs, and vegetable matter. In laboratory studies, some dietary diversity seems necessary for proper larval development. Blood-only diets allow only 12% of larvae to mature, whereas blood and yeast or dog chow diets allow almost all larvae to mature. Another study also showed that 90% of larvae matured into adults when the diet included nonviable eggs. They are blind and avoid sunlight, keeping to dark, humid places such as sand or soil, cracks and crevices, under carpets and in bedding. The entire larval stage lasts between four and 18 days


Given an adequate supply of food, larvae pupate and weave silken cocoons after three larval stages. Within the cocoon, the larva molts for a final time and undergoes metamorphosis into the adult form. This can take just four days, but may take much longer under adverse conditions, and there follows a variable-length stage during which the pre-emergent adult awaits a suitable opportunity to emerge. Trigger factors for emergence include vibrations (including sound), heat (in warm-blooded hosts), and increased levels of carbon dioxide, all of which stimuli may indicate the presence of a suitable host. Large numbers of pre-emergent fleas may be present in otherwise flea-free environments, and the introduction of a suitable host may trigger a mass emergence


Once the flea reaches adulthood, its primary goal is to find blood and then to reproduce. Female fleas can lay 5000 or more eggs over their life, permitting rapid increase in numbers. Generally speaking, an adult flea only lives for 2 or 3 months. Without a host to provide a blood meal, a flea’s life can be as short as a few days. Under ideal conditions of temperature, food supply, and humidity, adult fleas can live for up to a year and a half. Completely developed adult fleas can live for several months without eating, so long as they do not emerge from their puparia. Optimum temperatures for the flea’s life cycle are 21 °C to 30 °C (70 °F to 85 °F) and optimum humidity is 70%.

Adult female rabbit fleas, Spilopsyllus cuniculi, can detect the changing levels of cortisol and corticosterone hormones in the rabbit’s blood that indicate it is getting close to giving birth. This triggers sexual maturity in the fleas and they start producing eggs. As soon as the baby rabbits are born, the fleas make their way down to them and once on board they start feeding, mating, and laying eggs. After 12 days, the adult fleas make their way back to the mother. They complete this mini-migration every time she gives birth

Taxonomy and phylogeny

Between 1735 and 1758, the Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus first classified insects, doing so on the basis of their wing structure. One of the seven orders into which he divided them was “Aptera”, meaning wingless, a group in which as well as fleas, he included spiders, woodlice and myriapods. It wasn’t until 1810 that the French zoologist Pierre André Latreille reclassified the insects on the basis of their mouthparts as well as their wings, splitting Aptera into Thysanura (silverfish), Anoplura (sucking lice) and Siphonaptera (fleas), at the same time separating off the arachnids and crustaceans into their own subphyla. The group’s name, Siphonaptera, is zoological Latin from the Greek siphon (a tube) and aptera (wingless).

Fleas are related to the Diptera (true flies) and the Mecoptera (scorpion flies) as shown in the cladogram, based on a 2008 analysis of four loci (18S and 28S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome oxidase II, and elongation factor 1-alpha) for 128 flea taxa from around the world. The Boreidae (snow scorpionflies) are the sister clade to the Siphonaptera.

Relationship with host

Fleas feed on a wide variety of warm-blooded vertebrates including humans, dogs, cats, rabbits, squirrels, ferrets, rats, mice and birds. Fleas normally specialise in one host species or group of species, but can often feed but not reproduce on other species. Ceratophyllus gallinae affects poultry as well as wild birds. As well as the degree of relatedness of a potential host to the flea’s original host, it has been shown that avian fleas that exploit a range of hosts, only parasitise species with low immune responses. In general, host specificity decreases as the size of the host species decreases. Another factor is the opportunities available to the flea to change host species; this is smaller in colonially nesting birds, where the flea may never encounter another species, than it is in solitary nesting birds. A large, long-lived host provides a stable environment that favours host-specific parasites.

Although there are dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis Curtis, 1826), and cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) fleas are not strictly species-specific. A study in Virginia examined fleas collected from 29 dogs. In total, 244 fleas were identified and all turned out to be cat fleas. In fact, dog fleas haven’t been found in Virginia in more than 70 years, so it is very likely that a flea found on a dog is actually a cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis). In fact, dog fleas may not even occur in the US.

One theory of human hairlessness is that the loss of hair helped humans to reduce their burden of fleas and other ectoparasites

Direct effects of bites

In many species, fleas are principally a nuisance to their hosts, causing an itching sensation which in turn causes the host to try to remove the pest by biting, pecking or scratching. Fleas are not simply a source of annoyance, however. Flea bites cause a slightly raised, swollen, irritating nodule to form on the epidermis at the site of each bite, with a single puncture point at the centre, like a mosquito bite.:126 This can lead to an eczematous itchy skin disease called flea allergy dermatitis, which is common in many host species, including dogs and cats. The bites often appear in clusters or lines of two bites, and can remain itchy and inflamed for up to several weeks afterwards. Fleas can lead to secondary hair loss as a result of frequent scratching and biting by the animal. They can also cause anemia in extreme cases

As a vector

Fleas are vectors for viral, bacterial and rickettsial diseases of humans and other animals, as well as of protozoan and helminth parasites. Bacterial diseases carried by fleas include murine or endemic typhus:124 and bubonic plague. Fleas can transmit Rickettsia typhi, Rickettsia felis, Bartonella henselae, and the myxomatosis virus.: They can carry Hymenolepiasis tapeworms and Trypanosome protozoans.: The chigoe flea or jigger (Tunga penetrans) causes the disease tungiasis, a major public health problem around the world. Fleas that specialize as parasites on specific mammals may use other mammals as hosts; thus, humans may be bitten by cat and dog fleas

Relationship with humans

In literature and art

Fleas have appeared in poetry, literature, music and art; these include Robert Hooke’s drawing of a flea under the microscope in his pioneering book Micrographia published in 1665, poems by Donne and Jonathan Swift, works of music by Giorgio Federico Ghedini and Modest Mussorgsky, a play by Georges Feydeau, a film by Charlie Chaplin, and paintings by artists such as Giuseppe Crespi, Giovanni Battista Piazzetta, and Georges de La Tour

John Donne’s erotic metaphysical poem “The Flea”, published in 1633 after his death, uses the conceit of a flea, which has sucked blood from the male speaker and his female lover, as an extended metaphor for their sexual relationship. The speaker tries to convince a lady to sleep with him, arguing that if the mingling of their blood in the flea is innocent, then sex would be also.

The comic poem Siphonaptera was written in 1915 by the mathematician Augustus De Morgan, It describes an infinite chain of parasitism made of ever larger and ever smaller fleas

Flea circuses

Flea circuses provided entertainment to nineteenth century audiences. These circuses, extremely popular in Europe from 1830 onwards, featured fleas dressed as humans or towing miniature carts, chariots, rollers or cannon. These devices were originally made by watchmakers or jewellers to show off their skill at miniaturization. A ringmaster called a “professor” accompanied their performance with a rapid circus patter.

Carriers of plague

Oriental rat fleas, Xenopsylla cheopis, can carry the coccobacillus Yersinia pestis. The infected fleas feed on rodent vectors of this bacterium, such as the black rat, Rattus rattus, and then infect human populations with the plague, as has happened repeatedly from ancient times, as in the Plague of Justinian in 541–542. Outbreaks killed up to 200 million people across Europe between 1346 and 1671. The Black Death pandemic between 1346 and 1353 likely killed over a third of the population of Europe.

Because fleas carry plague, they have seen service as a biological weapon. During World War II, the Japanese army dropped fleas infested with Y. pestis in China. The bubonic and septicaemic plagues are the most probable form of the plague that would spread as a result of a bioterrorism attack that used fleas as a vector.

The Rothschild Collection

The banker Charles Rothschild devoted much of his time to entomology, creating a large collection of fleas now in the Rothschild Collection at the Natural History Museum, London. He discovered and named the plague vector flea, Xenopsylla cheopis, also known as the oriental rat flea, in 1903. Using what was probably the world’s most complete collection of fleas of about 260,000 specimens (representing some 73% of the 2,587 species and subspecies so far described), he described around 500 species and subspecies of Siphonaptera. He was followed in this interest by his daughter Miriam Rothschild, who helped to catalogue his enormous collection of the insects in seven volumes

Flea treatments

Fleas have a significant economic impact. In America alone, approximately $2.8 billion is spent annually on flea-related veterinary bills and another $1.6 billion annually for flea treatment with pet groomers. Four billion dollars is spent annually for prescription flea treatment and $348 million for flea pest control

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